Mineral collection is the systematic identification and display of mineral specimen. The minerals are obtained from mining. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals and other geological materials from earth. It is the method of obtaining things that cannot be grown using farming or manufactured synthetically using laboratory. The mining includes the extraction of a number of metals, petroleum products, coal, limestone or even water.
Mining has been in existence, since early ages. The older civilization has been using metals like copper, gold and silver. This is an indication that man has been in the quest of new things and wanted to make the best use of them. In the early days, the metals that are closer to the earth’s crust are what were mined. These were made use of to make tools and early weapons. Archaeological sites bear profound examples of man’s interest in mining. The oldest mine in record is the “Lion cave” in Swaziland. The time period of these relics is done using carbon-dating process. This shows that the humans used the hematite, the red pigment ochre.
Greek and Romans are famous with their long history in mining. There were gold and silver mines. There were even marble quarries. The kings and queens were fond of the grandeur and were opulent in the display of the same. King Philip II, the father of Alexander, the great, had captured the gold mines to fund his military campaigns. Coins made of these metals had values associated with them. The early currency made use of the metals available during then. Romans used many sophisticated methods of mining. There were hydraulic mines to know core ores. There were aqueducts to push water to the core part of the rock and explore the minerals. They also used techniques to penetrate the water table, remove the water using several kind of machines and obtaining the mineral of interest. The mining industry had a sea-change during the medieval times. Many precious metals were obtained from deep shafts rather than open pit mining. The dearth of availability of silver was felt when the mines went dry, resulting in different form of currency.
Remote sensing This is the advance method for mineral exploration. It is the science of acquiring, processing, and interpreting images and related data, acquired from aircraft and satellites that record the interaction between matter and electromagnetic energy. Remote sensing isn’t a specific technology, but rather an umbrella term for a number of techniques and tools like radar, geographical information systems and sonar, to name a few. These tools are used to gather valuable visual and spectral data that can be analyzed to create insights throughout the mineral exploration process. Remote sensing involves gathering information about the physical world by measuring the radiation, particle and field signals that emanate from objects. The data can be used to identify and categorize different objects — all without needing to make physical contact. Remote sensing is done using two applications. They are the study of the map geology to locate the faults and fractures that give a clear indication of the ore deposits available locally. The other technique is the study of the hydrothermally altered rocks using their spectral signature. Hyperspectral imaging systems can identify individual species of iron and clay minerals, which can provide details of hydrothermal zoning. Images are obtained from the radar systems fitted on the satellites and aircraft. This helps in the worldwide data available immediately and cover a large surface area. The archives are used for the comparison of the production from the mine.
India not only has arable land but also has a rich source of minerals. It is one of the top producers of different minerals including coal, lignites, barite, Visit Company website, iron ore, bauxite, manganese, thorium and aluminum. It is the world’s largest producer of mica. One of the challenging issues is the ecological disturbance. Modern mines reclaim the land after mining is completed. Some of the companies refill the pit with the original rock material that was separated from the core. Some of the companies use mixed hardwood providing habitation for the community with very high quality. Reclamation is also done by restoring the surfaces to blend with surrounding terrain. The recent times has seen the mining of various minerals like silica, zinc.
The air quality around these mines are measured for monitoring the micro/nano sized particles suspended in the air. That fact is tied in to the other concerns. Industrial sized silica sand mines typically require millions of gallons of water each day to operate, and often tap into the local aquifer for that supply. They can cause the most health concerns, such as silicosis, cancer, kidney damage, enlargement of the heart and other pulmonary diseases. It can take 10 to 15 years for many long-term health concerns to manifest themselves, but he advocates for more strict oversight and regulation to be imposed immediately. One mine in Chippewa Falls has asked to use 200 million gallons a day, for example. That remains an ongoing concern in Chippewa Falls, where 10 mines could be in operation by 2013.